CAUSES, PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION
Sexual satisfaction is defined as the effective response arising from one's evaluation of his or her sexual relationship, including the perception that the individual fulfills his needs and expectation, as well as his partner’s. However, the prevailing and most often assessed determinants of sexual satisfaction are frequency of sexual interactions and frequency of orgasms. McCarthy (1999) made some postulations about the relationship between marital satisfaction and sexual satisfaction. He stated that when sex goes well, it is about 15%- 20% of the relationship. On the other hand, when sex does not go well, it accounts for about 50%-75% of the relationship, gaining power as sexual problems increase and robbing the marriage of intimacy and vitality. The inability to maintain a healthy sexual and reproductive life leads to depression, nervousness, anxiety, fear and ultimately low quality of life. Interestingly, a high number of divorce cases occur annually, due to problems arising from sexual dysfunctions.
Sexual dysfunction takes different forms in men and women and may be acute or situational, as it may be due to response to environment, loss of loved one or job. It may also be persistent or chronic due to an underlying disease conditions. Whatever form it takes, sexual dysfunction takes a toll on the relationship and general well being of the person. Sexual dysfunction may manifest in different forms, but more commonly is Erectile dysfunction (ED) in males.
ED, is a type of sexual dysfunction that occurs, when a man is consistently unable to attain or maintain a penile erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance (Sanchez-cruiz and Martins-Morales, 2003). Interestingly, a satisfying sexual relationship is an important part of a marital relationship. Many females may never achieve orgasm without a sustained sexual intercourse. Albeit, some may experience it after their partners by masturbation. It has been opined by some researchers that females who generally experience orgasm before or with their partner were more satisfied than females who generally experience orgasm after their partner (McCarthy, 1999). According to Darling, Davidson and Cox (1991) the timing of orgasms is important for female sexual satisfaction. The role of sexual satisfaction therefore, has been highlighted as a metaphorical barometer of relationship satisfaction, indicating that sexual satisfaction is vital in an intimate relationship, possibly even a “make or break” factor (Santtila et al., 2008) Reciprocally, sexual dissatisfaction has been linked to infidelity and even divorce (Ashdown et al., 2011). The World Health Organization (WHO) has projected that, in 2025 about 322 million males will be sexually dysfunctional. In Nigeria, the prevalence of sexual dysfunction was already 57.4% among men above 35 years as at 2003 (Sheer et al., 2003).
Why has ED become a major problem?
Increase in female voice
ED can result from medical, physical or psychological factors. ED may be caused by a combination of factors that could also include medicine, alcohol or drugs. The physical and medical causes of ED include three basic problems:
- Disease conditions: Many conditions can lead to reduce blood flow into the penis, causing ED. Heart disease, diabetes and even smoking.
- Venous leak or cavernosal dysfunction: Here the penis cannot store blood during an erection. A man with this problem, cannot maintain an erection because blood does not remain trapped in the penis. This condition may occur at any age.
- Nerve damage: here signals from the brain or spinal cord do not reach the penis. Certain diseases, injury or surgery in the pelvic area can damage nerves in the penis.
- Low levels of the hormone testosterone
- Elevated levels of sugar in your blood or urine, which are signs of diabetes
- Elevated levels of blood cholesterol and other lipids (fatty substances)
- Use of the following drugs; Alcohol. Amphetamines, Barbiturates, Cocaine, Marijuana, Methadone, Nicotine, Opiates.
E.D. can be an early warning sign of a more serious illness, such as heart disease, high blood pressure or diabetes mellitus. Diagnosing and treating the condition that causes ED can improve your overall well being, as well as help restore your sexual health.
Changing certain habits, such as stopping drug or alcohol use may improve or eliminate ED.
Psychological problems, such as relationship conflicts, depression or performance anxiety, can also be treated.
Make good food choices, get regular physical activity, and try to maintain normal weight and cholesterol levels.
Drugs commonly Used
Hormones and Vasodilators
Testosterone is the main sex hormone in the male body
Alprostadil (Caverject, Edex, Muse) is used to treat ED. It comes as a solution for injection. ...
Tadalafil (Cialis) is an oral drug that increases blood flow throughout your body.
Vardenafil (Levitra, Staxyn) is an oral drug used to treat ED.
Viagra. Take between 30 and 60 minutes (and up to 4 hours) before sex; works for about 4 hours. ...
Levitra. Take 1 hour before sex; works for 4 to 5 hours, and may be slightly more effective than Viagra. ...
Men with certain medical conditions should be careful when using PDE-5 inhibitors. Make sure your health care provider knows if you have any of the following conditions.
- active stomach ulcers
- certain heart problems
- retinitis pigmentosa (a rare eye disease)
- a recent stroke, heart attack or lifethreatening arrhythmia
- abnormally low or elevated blood pressure
- liver or kidney problems
- bleeding disorders
- a deformed penis shape or Peyronie’s disease
- history of an erection lasting more than four hours
- certain blood cell problems
When there are signs of this condition, it is best however, to consult Clinical Psychologist, Psychiatrist, and Urologist for medical advice.
McCarthy, B (1999). Marital style and its effects on sexual desire and functioning. Journal of Family Psychotherapy, 10, 1-12.
Darling, CA, Davidson JK, Cox, R. P (1991). Female sexual response and the timing of partner orgasm. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 17, 3-21.
Sanchez-cruz JJ, Martins-morales A (2003). Male erectile dysfunction and Health related quality of life. European Urology. 44: 245-253.
Santtila P, Wager I, Witting K, Harlaar N, Jern P, Johansson A, Sandnabba NK (2008). Discrepancies between sexual desire and sexual activity: Gender differences and associations with relationship satisfaction. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 34, 29-42.
Ashdown BK, Hackathorn J, Clark EM (2011). In and out of the bedroom: sexual satisfaction in the marital relationship. Journal of Integrated Social Sciences, 2(1): 40-57.
Sheer KZM, Osegbe DN, Sidigin SH, Razzaque A, Glasser DB, Jaguste V (2003). Prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction and Its correlates among men attending Primary Care Clinics in three countries; Pakistan, Egypt and Nigeria. International Journal of Impotence, 15 (1): 58-514.
By Mr. Ehigiator, Enoluomen Ben
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